Development of Second Primary Tumors and Outcomes in Medulloblastoma by Treatment Modality: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

Background: As treatment modalities for medulloblastoma have developed and overall survival (OS) has improved, there are relatively limited data on the impact of long-term effects such as risk of second primary tumors (SPT). To address the knowledge gap, we analyzed factors associated with the risk of SPT and OS by treatment modality for medulloblastoma.

Methods: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 database for patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma in 1973-2014. Patients were then grouped by age, gender, race, geographic region, histology, adjuvant treatment (no radiation [RT] and no chemotherapy [CT], RT and CT, RT alone, or CT alone), era of diagnosis (1973-1994 or 1995-2014), and survival time. Cumulative incidence, factors associated with SPT and OS were analyzed.

Results: Of 2271 patients, 146 developed SPT, of which 42 were benign. The incidence of SPT was 3.1% and 4.9% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. The incidence of SPT was 3.1% with RT + CT versus 3.7% with RT alone at 10 years. The most common site for an SPT was the central nervous system. Female gender (P = 0.01) and longer OS of ≥21 years (P < 0.01) were associated with higher risk of SPT. RT + CT led to better OS than RT only (66.1% and 61.4% vs 55.6% and 49.7% at 10 and 15 years) (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Medulloblastoma patients have a relatively low risk of SPT at 10 years with treatment. Use of RT + CT led to better OS with no statistical difference in SPT compared with the RT alone.

Keywords: chemotherapy; medulloblastoma; radiotherapy; second primary tumor; survival.