Bone Marrow Particle Enrichment Analysis for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma: A Case Study

Background: Bone marrow smear and biopsy are the main methods for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM), bone marrow infiltration, and metastasis in lymphoma and cancer. However, several factors, including the focal growth of tumor cells, inappropriate puncture sites, and hemodilution of bone marrow aspirates, lower the rate of target cell detection. To solve this problem, we developed a novel method-bone marrow particle enrichment analysis-and here, we describe this procedure and its use in the diagnosis of a rare case of MM.

Methods: An 88-year-old man with primary gastric gamma delta T-cell lymphoma (γδTCL) was found to have anemia. As the cause of anemia could not be determined, hemodilution was suspected, warranting the re-examination of the bone marrow aspirate. Re-puncture could not be performed because of the patient’s age and unwillingness to undergo this procedure. Hence, we used a novel approach to enrich bone marrow particles and isolate marrow cells, and subsequently performed morphological and flow cytometric analysis.

Results: Examinations performed after bone marrow particle enrichment revealed the presence of myeloma cells, and the patient was diagnosed with primary gastric γδTCL accompanied by MM.

Conclusions: Bone marrow particle enrichment analysis may be applied to overcome the problems caused by hemodilution of bone marrow aspirates and to improve the rate of tumor cell detection. The application of this method for the diagnosis of hematological disorders should be explored further.