Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality but Not with Cancer Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Japanese Adults

BACKGROUND: 

The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a comprehensive, literature-derived index for assessing the effect of dietary constituents on inflammatory biomarkers. Several studies have shown an association between DII score and mortality, but there are limited prospective studies in Asian populations.

OBJECTIVES: 

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DII score and risk of all-cause, total cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), total cancer, digestive cancer, and noncancer/non-CVD mortality in the Japanese population.

METHODS: 

A total of 58,782 Japanese participants aged 40-79 y who were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study during 1988-1990 were included in the analysis. DII scores were calculated based on a food-frequency questionnaire. HRs and 95% CIs for mortality according to DII quintiles were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: 

During the median follow-up period of 19.3 y, a total of 11,693 participants died. The multivariable HR for all-cause mortalityfor the highest compared with the lowest DII quintiles was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.21). For CVD mortality, the highest multivariable HRs were 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.49), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.59), and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.76) for total CVD, stroke, and CHD, respectively. No significant associations were observed between DII and risk of total cancer, digestive cancer, and noncancer/non-CVD mortality.

CONCLUSION: 

Our findings suggest that a higher DII was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among Japanese adults.