Gallic Acid Prevents Ketamine-Induced Oxidative Damages in Brain Regions and Liver of Rats


Ketamine (KET) is an anesthetic agent widely used in human and veterinary medicine. According to studies, KET is associated to direct neutorotoxic damages due to its capacity to induce oxidative stress. Because of the free radical generation in the organism and its relation with diseases’ development, there is a growing interest to study antioxidant molecules, such as gallic acid (GA), a natural phenolic compound.


Evaluate the GA antioxidant potential for the prevention of oxidative damage in the brain and liver tissue of rats exposed to acute KET administration.


32 Wistar male rats received GA (by gavage, 13.5 mg/kg) for three consecutive days, 24 h after the last GA dose, animals were anesthetized with KET (50 mg/kg, i.m.). All animals were euthanized by decapitation 60 minutes after KET administration. The liver, brain cortex and hippocampus were removed and homogenized for biochemical analysis.


In brain cortex, KET increased reactive species (RS) generation, protein carbonyls (PC) levels and reduced non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels, while GA pre-treatment reduced PC and increased NPSH levels. KET increased PC and decreased NPSH levels in the hippocampus, and GA reduced PC and NPSH levels. In the liver, no difference was observed in the RS generation, while KET induced and increase of PC levels and decreased NPSH levels, while GA pre-treatment prevented it.


GA administration can prevent oxidative damage caused by acute KET administration and minimize its noxious effects. Further studies are needed to evidence GA antioxidant properties regarding KET chronic use.