Frequency and Factors Related to Not Receiving Acute Reperfusion Therapy in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction; A Single Specialty Cardiac Center

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the frequency of no reperfusion therapy, its reasons, hospital management and intermediate-term outcome s of ST- elevation my ocardial in farction patients .

METHODS:

The retrospective ambi-directional observational study was conducted at Tabba Heart Institute, Karachi, and comprised record of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients without immediate reperfusion therapy with symptom onset time of 12 hours who presented between January 2013 and December 2017. Prospective follow-up of all patients was performed till June 2018. Coronary angiography, non-invasive stress tests, medications and late revascularisation were explored. Predictors of hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events at follow-up were analysed. Data was analysed using SPSS 19.

RESULTS:

Of the 1977 records evaluated, 218(11%) patients of mean age 60.3±12.4 years did not receive immediate reperfusion therapy. Coronary angiography was done in 163(74.7%) patients of whom 45(27.6%) were taken for immediate procedure. Besides, 26 (11.9%) patients died during hospital stay. Predictors of hospital mortality were no revascularisation (odds ratio: 24.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-500), cardiogenic shock (odds ratio: 65, 95% confidence interval: 5.7-745) and tachycardia (odds ratio: 17, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-254.5) at presentation. Predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events was guideline-directed medical therapy (hazard ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-6.2) at discharge, while revascularisation was not a significant predictor (p>0.05).

CONCLUSION:

A huge number of salvageable ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients failed to receive reperfusion therapy. There is a huge potential of improvement in ST-elevation myocardial infarction care in terms of increasing community awareness, prompt reperfusion therapy and usage of optimal medical therapy.