Nano Today. 2020 Dec;35:101001. doi: 10.1016/j.nantod.2020.101001. Epub 2020 Oct 8.
Preventing the trajectory of human coronaviruses including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic could rely on the sprint to design a rational roadmap using breakneck strategies to counter its prime challenges. Recently, carbon quantum dots (CQDs), zero-dimensional (0D) carbon-based nanomaterials, have emerged as a fresh antiviral agent owing to their unique physicochemical properties. Additionally, doping instils beneficial properties in CQDs, augmenting their antiviral potential. The antiviral properties of CQDs can be reinforced by heteroatom doping. Bestowed with multifaceted features, functionalized CQDs can interact with the spike protein of the human coronaviruses and perturb the virus-host cell recognition. Recently, triazole derivatives have been explored as potent inhibitors of human coronaviruses by blocking the viral enzymes such as 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and helicase, important for viral replication. Moreover, they offer a better aromatic heterocyclic core for therapeutics owing to their higher thermodynamic stability. To curb the current outbreak, triazole functionalized heteroatom co-doped carbon quantum dots (TFH-CQDs) interacting with viral cells spanning the gamut of complexity can be utilized for deciphering the mystery of its inhibitory mechanism against human coronaviruses. In this quest to unlock the potential of antiviral carbon-based nanomaterials, CQDs and triazole conjugated CQDs template comprising a series of bioisosteres, CQDs-1 to CQDs-9, can extend the arsenal of functional antiviral materials at the forefront of the war against human coronaviruses.