Endobronchial valve positioning for alveolar-pleural fistula following ICU management complicating COVID-19 pneumonia

This article was originally published here

BMC Pulm Med. 2021 Sep 27;21(1):307. doi: 10.1186/s12890-021-01653-w.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung parenchyma is highly prone to ventilator-related injury, with pneumothorax and persistent air leak as the most serious adverse events. So far, endobronchial valve (EBV) positioning has proved efficacious in treating air leaks with a high success rate.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report, for the first time, two cases of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia complicated with bacterial super-infection, experiencing pneumothorax and persistent air leaks after invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite the severity of respiratory failure both patients underwent rigid interventional bronchoscopy and were successfully treated through EBV positioning.

CONCLUSIONS: Persistent air leaks may result from lung tissue damage due to a complex interaction between inflammation and ventilator-related injury (VILI), especially in the advanced stages of ARDS. EBV positioning seems to be a feasible and effective minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating this subset of patients.

PMID:34579700 | DOI:10.1186/s12890-021-01653-w