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Medicine (Madr). 2022 May;13(55):3250-3255. doi: 10.1016/j.med.2022.05.006. Epub 2022 May 12.
The clinical spectrum of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is highly variable. It commonly has a mild or asymptomatic course. Around 15% to 20% of patients have lung involvement, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with marked alteration of the inflammatory and immune response. In these severe forms, there is an increased prevalence of vascular thrombotic complications which manifest as venous thromboembolism, acute arterial ischemia in the limbs, and, less frequently, myocardial involvement or cerebrovascular accident. The proposed pathogenic mechanisms include diffuse endothelial damage or endotheliitis, microvascular inflammation, cytokine release, hypercoagulability, and hypoxia. Early recognition of these complications is vital for improving the prognosis and survival of these patients.