Cytomorphological Spectrum of Metastatic Bone Tumors: Experience at a Tertiary Care Center

Objectives: Bone is a frequent site of metastases and typically indicates a short-term prognosis in cancer patients. The majority of skeletal metastases are due to breast and prostate cancer. Bone metastasis is actually much more common than primary bone cancers, especially in adults. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) provides reasonably accurate pre-operative diagnosis in vast majority of cases. This study aims to elicit the cytomorphological detail of various metastatic bone tumors.

Material and methods: A total of 109 cases of tumors metastatic to bone have been included in this study. The details of the cases were available from the archives of the department of cytology. May Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin stained smears were studied and examined for the cytomorphological spectrum. Cell block and immunohistochemistry tests were done, wherever feasible.

Results: Among 109 patients, the mean age was 54.52 years. There was male preponderance with 90 males and 19 females. The most common site of metastases was in the vertebra (82 cases), and 76 cases were in the dorsolumbar region. The most common type of tumor metastasizing was adenocarcinoma.

Conclusion: FNAC is a very useful, economical procedure. There are characteristic cytological features of the metastatic lesions and the basic diagnostic categorization of the malignant tumors is possible on FNAC. Regarding the primary source clinical history, radiological features of the primary tumor, if any, and immunocytochemistry may be needed.

Keywords: Bone; Cytology; Fine-needle aspiration cytology; Metastases.