COVID-19 Vaccine Responses in Patients With Plasma Cell Dyscrasias After Complete Vaccination

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Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2021 Nov 11:S2152-2650(21)02422-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2021.11.001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to functional hypogammaglobulinemia, patients with multiple myeloma are at increased risk for infection and generally have poorer responses to vaccines. In this study, we examined antibody responses after complete COVID-19 vaccination in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, most of whom were receiving treatment.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Real world study of consecutive patients with multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) were evaluated after complete vaccination with either the 2-shot mRNA vaccines from BioNTech and Moderna or the 1-shot adenoviral vector vaccine from Johnson & Johnson (J&J). Patients received vaccines 1-4 months before antibody testing without controlling for the type of vaccine or the timing of drug therapy. Patients with a clinical history or antibody evidence of prior infection were excluded. Antinucleocapsid and quantitative anti-spike antibody levels were measured with the Roche Elecys assay.

RESULTS: Ninety-five percent of patients had detectable antibody responses. Multivariate analysis showed that higher age, ongoing anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody therapy and the J&J vaccine negatively affected quantitative response. A small number of ineffectively vaccinated patients receiving IVIG subsequently had detectable nucleocapsid and spike antibodies confirming the presence of the latter in currently administered IVIG.

CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all PCD had detectable anti-spike antibodies after vaccination but age, anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody therapy, and the single-shot J&J vaccine negatively affected responses. In patients who received the J&J vaccine, second doses or heterologous mRNA vaccines should be tested. Quantitative antibody testing might make future management more rational, particularly in patients with poor responses.

PMID:34872881 | DOI:10.1016/j.clml.2021.11.001