Sex Differences in Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Acute Heart Failure: A Report from the Korean Heart Failure Registry

Background: Although a better survival rate in women than in men has been reported in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the sex-specific prognosis has scarcely been addressed in HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). Thus, this study investigated the sex difference in clinical outcomes in patients with HFpEF, as well as in those with HFrEF. Materials and Methods: We studied clinical outcomes of 2,572 hospitalized patients due to HF (66.8 ± 14.4 years, 49.7% women) in the Korean Heart Failure Registry. Patients were divided into two groups by left ventricular EF (LVEF): HFpEF (LVEF ≥50%, n = 764) and HFrEF (LVEF <40%, n = 1,808) groups. Results: During a median follow-up of 1,121 days, there were 693 (28.7%) deaths and 1,073 (44.5%) composite events (death and HF readmission). There were no sex differences in the incidence of death or composite events during follow-up in both HFrEF and HFpEF groups (p > 0.05 for each). In 1:1 age-matched population (n = 1,005 in each sex), the long-term mortality was significantly lower in women than men in HFrEF group (p = 0.005), but not in HFpEF group (p = 0.786), while the incidences of composite events were similar between sex irrespective of LVEF (p > 0.05). However, there were no significant associations between sex and clinical outcomes in multivariable analysis (p > 0.05 for each). Conclusions: Sex per se was not the significant factor determining long-term clinical outcomes in HF patients regardless of the LVEF.