Transradial access (TRA) is a widely used technique during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, mediastinal and cervical hematomas, the rare and severe complications of transradial approach, have extremely high mortality rates. To the best of our knowledge, there were no medical literatures about the successful anticoagulation reversal procedure of mediastinal hematoma in PCI till now.
We here present a 54-year-old male Han patient who underwent PCI. Immediately after PCI, he reported an episode of neck and chest discomfort, dyspnea, cough recurrence, and cold sweats. Emergency chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a perforation of the subclavian artery resulting in a large mediastinal hematoma with potentially lethal tracheal compression.
A diagnosis of the large mediastinal hematoma was made based on the enhanced computed tomography.
The patient was successfully managed with palliative therapy of anticoagulation reversal instead of a covered stent graft and surgical operation.
Angiography confirmed the absence of leakage after anticoagulation reversal. The patient had an apparent remission of clinical dyspnea. Follow-up CT confirmed an almost entire absorption of the mediastinal hematoma 35 days post discharge.
The current case highlights the importance of anticoagulation reversal as well as careful guidewire and guide catheter manipulation by the radial approach. Early evaluation, prompt identification, appropriate treatment, and close monitoring are all essential for invasive cardiology.