R2 Prime (R2′) Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Post-Myocardial Infarction Intramyocardial Hemorrhage Quantification


To assess whether R2* is more accurate than T2* for the detection of intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) and to evaluate whether T2′ (or R2′) is less affected by oedema than T2* (R2*), and thus more suitable for the accurate identification of post-myocardial infarction (MI) IMH.


Reperfused anterior MI was performed in 20 pigs, which were sacrificed at 120 min, 24 h, 4 days, and 7 days. At each time point, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T2- and T2*-mapping scans were recorded, and myocardial tissue samples were collected to quantify IMH and myocardial water content. After normalization by the number of red blood cells in remote tissue, histological IMH increased 5.2-fold, 10.7-fold, and 4.1-fold at Days 1, 4, and 7, respectively. The presence of IMH was correlated more strongly with R2* (r = 0.69; P = 0.013) than with T2* (r = -0.50; P = 0.085). The correlation with IMH was even stronger for R2′ (r = 0.72; P = 0.008). For myocardial oedema, the correlation was stronger for R2* (r = -0.63; P = 0.029) than for R2′ (r = -0.50; P = 0.100). Multivariate linear regressions confirmed that R2* values were significantly explained by both IMH and oedema, whereas R2′ values were mostly explained by histological IMH (P = 0.024) and were little influenced by myocardial oedema (P = 0.262).


Using CMR mapping with histological validation in a pig model of reperfused MI, R2’more accurately detected IMH and was less influenced by oedema than R2* (and T2*). Further studies are needed to elucidate whether R2′ is also better suited for the characterization of post-MI IMH in the clinical setting.