Psychosocial Risk Factors in Patients with Most Common Cardiovascular Diseases Such as Hypertension and Coronary Artery Disease Based on Results From the Russian Multicenter COMET Study

BACKGROUND:

Psychosocial risk factors (RFs) play a major role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).

AIM:

The COMET study aimed to obtain current data on psychosocial RFs in outpatients with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or coronary heart disease (CHD) seen in primary care facilities in 30 cities of Russia.

METHODS:

In 2016-2017, a multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out involving 325 physicians from community primary care facilities who enrolled 2,775 patients with AH and/or CHD ≥ 55 years of age. However, only 73 CHD patients (2.6%) were not hypertensive, therefore, these patients were excluded from the analyses. As a result, current paper is based on the comparison of AH patients (n=1687) vs. participants with both CHD and AH (AH+CHD; n=1015). We collected patients’ socio-demographic data, clinical features, traditional and psychosocial RFs, such as anxiety and depression, stress level, type D personality, and treatment adherence.

RESULTS:

The study population (women, 72%; mean age ± SD, 66.7 ± 7.9 years) had a significant prevalence of psychosocial RF. 43.8% of AH patients and 45.5 % of participants with AH+CHD rated their income as low or very low, a low educational level was reported in 21.6% and 26.0%, respectively (both p=n/s). Social isolation was uncommon, but it occurred more frequently in AH+CHD patients (8.3% vs. 5.2%, p<0.01). Nevertheless, 40.2% of AH patients and 39.4% of AH+CHD were not married, and 26.0% and 24.6% were living alone, respectively. Elevated stress level was prevalent in more than 60% of patients (67.9% in AH patients vs. 67.7% in AH+CHD patents, p=n/s), and 63.3% and 64.8% of patients, respectively, reported stressful life events in the preceding year (p=n/s). Type D personality was more common in AH+CHD patients (41.2% vs. 35.8%; p<0.01). Clinically significant anxiety symptoms were prevalent in 24.7% ofAH patients and in 27.4% ofAH+CHD patients(p=n/s), and clinically significant depressive symptoms were identified in 13.9% and 20.9%, respectively (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION:

We obtained current data on psychosocial RFs prevalence in outpatients with the most common CVDs in primary care setting. At the moment, their prevalence remains significant.