Lipopolysaccharide in Systemic Circulation Induces Activation of Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1

The shock index (SI) is defined as the ratio of heart rate/systolic blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the performance of delta shock index (ΔSI), a difference between SI upon arrival at the emergency room (ER) and that in the field, in predicting the need for massive transfusion (MT) among adult trauma patients with stable blood pressure.

This study included registered data from all trauma patients aged 20 years and above who were hospitalized from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2016. Only patients who were transferred by emergency medical service from the accident site with a systolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg at the ER were included. The 7,957 enrolled trauma patients were divided into 2 groups, those who had received blood transfusion ≥ 10 U (MT, n = 82) and those who had not (non-MT, n = 7,875). The odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the need for MT by a given ΔSI were measured. The plot of specific receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was used to evaluate the best cutoff point of ΔSI that could predict the patient’s probability of receiving MT.

ROC curve analysis showed that a ΔSI of 0.06 as the cutoff point had the highest AUC of 0.61, with a sensitivity of 0.415 and specificity of 0.841. Patients with a ΔSI ≥ 0.00 had a significant 1.8-fold increase in need for MT than those patients with a ΔSI less than 0.00 (1.4% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.01). The larger the ΔSI, the higher the odds of need for an MT. Using the cutoff point of ΔSI of 0.06, patients with a ΔSI ≥ 0.06 had a significant 3.7-fold increase in need for MT than those patients with a ΔSI less than 0.06 (2.7% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001).

This study indicated that, in trauma patients with stable blood pressure at the ER, the accuracy of prediction of the requirement for MT by ΔSI is low. However, the size of the delta is significantly associated with need for MT and a lack of improvement in the patient’s SI at the ER compared to that in the field significantly increases the odds of a need for MT.