Lipid Profile, Familial Hypercholesterolemia Prevalence, and 2-year Cardiovascular Outcome Assessment in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Real-Life Data of a Retrospective Cohort

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this retrospective study based on real-life data was to evaluate the lipid profile and demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at a tertiary center and to examine the mortality rate.

METHODS:

Information including endpoint data for at least 2 years following the index ACS event was retrieved from hospital records. Patients without sufficient follow-up data were called by phone. Modified Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria were used to identify the presence of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Factors affecting mortality in the 2-year follow-up period were evaluated using Cox regression analysis.

RESULTS:

A total of 985 ACS patients (215 females) between 21 and 93 years of age were included. The females were older and had a lower smoking rate than the males. In females, the history of obesity and hypertension, the diabetes rate, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone level were higher than those of the males. In 95.6% of the patients, lipid parameters were measured upon hospital admission. No significant difference in dyslipidemia frequency was observed between genders. The frequency of FH was 7.6%. The rate of lipid-lowering drug use was <20% at admission, >90% at discharge, and decreased to 50% in the follow-up period. The mortality rate was 3.8% in the in-hospital period and 8.1% during the 2 years of follow-up.

CONCLUSION:

The mortality rate in ACS patients was 3.8% in the in-hospital period and 8.1% in the 2-year follow-up period. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia was 89.5% and the rate of lipid-lowering drug use was insufficient. Secondary prevention after ACS was not adequately employed even at a tertiary center. The FH frequency was 7.6% and those with FH were observed to have ACS at a younger age than those without.