We aimed to identify predictors of late lumen enlargement (LLE) after drug-coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty for de novo coronary lesions. LLE, which is defined as an increase in the luminal diameter of the vessel from the immediate postprocedural measurement to follow-up measurements, is frequently observed after DCB angioplasty for de novo coronary artery disease. No predictors of LLE are known. This retrospective observational study analyzed 196 de novo coronary lesions in 182 patients who underwent both DCB angioplasty and follow-up angiography. Of the 196 lesions, 109 (56%) developed LLE during a mean follow-up period of 7.2 ± 2.5 months.
As defined by American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) lesion types, lesions with LLE were significantly less severe than lesions without LLE (types A, B1, B2 and C 15%, 35%, 38% and 13% vs. 7%, 24%, 45% and 24%, respectively; p = 0.036), although no significant differences in clinical or other lesion background characteristics were observed between the groups. Among type C lesions, chronic total occlusion (CTO) was more frequently observed in lesions with LLE than in lesions without LLE (79% vs 43%, p = 0.036). Lesion severity predicts LLE after DCB angioplasty for de novo coronary artery disease. Among type C lesions, CTO is expected in lesions showing LLE, and preparations should therefore be made prior to DCB application. Further research is needed.