Seasonal influenza outbreaks are associated with increased mortality and hospitalisation rates. Herein we tried to identify predictors of mortality in hospitalized patients with influenza virus infection.
In this exploratory retrospective observational single-center-study we included all influenza-positive patients older than 18 years who were hospitalized and treated at the flu-isolation-ward during the influenza season 2017/18. Diagnosis was based on point-of-care-test with the Alere™ i. First, we performed χ2 tests and Mann-Whitney U tests to identify predictors of mortality. Significant variables were used in a stepwise-forward-logistic-regression-model to predict in-hospital and 90-day mortality.
Of the 396 patients who tested positive for influenza 96 (24.2%) had influenza A and 300 (75.8%) influenza B. Twenty-two (5.6%) died in hospital and the 90-day mortality rate was 9.4%. In the stepwise logistic regression older age (OR 1.1 per year 95% CI 1.03-1.17), history of atrial fibrillation (OR 5.91 95% CI 1.91-18.34), dementia (OR 3.98 95% CI 1.24-12.78), leucocyte count (OR 1.11 per G/L 95% CI 1.03-1.20), pneumonia (OR 4.39 95% CI 1.44-13.39) and acute heart failure (OR 23.15 95% CI 4.33-123.76) increased the risk of in-hospital mortality. The risk for 90-day mortality was increased by older age (OR 1.04 per year 95% CI 1.01-1.07), history of atrial fibrillation (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.36-7.05), history of congestive heart failure (OR 4.7 95% CI 1.94-11.48), pneumonia (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.45-6.91) and decreased by statin use (OR 0.28 95% CI 0.10-0.78).
Older age, history of atrial fibrillation and pneumonia are associated with increased risk of influenza-associated in-hospital and 90-day mortality. Statin use may decrease 90-day mortality.