Impact of Direct Stenting on Clinical Outcomes for Small Vessel Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

INTRODUCTION:

Direct stenting (DS) is associated with improved markers of reperfusion during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, data evaluating its impact in small vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) are lacking.

AIM:

To compare DS and conventional stenting (CS) for small vessel CAD on clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

A cohort of 616 STEMI patients treated with DS (202 patients) or CS (414 patients) in small vessel (≤ 2.75 mm) lesions was retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint was to compare the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) between groups during 2-year follow-up. The secondary end points included in-hospital target lesion revascularization (TLR) and in-hospital death.

RESULTS:

The primary end-point, MACEs, occurred in 9.2% in the DS group and 12.3% in the CS group (p > 0.05). The rates of TLR, myocardial infarction (MI) and target vessel revascularization (TVR) were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). The stent thrombosis (ST) rate was significantly lower in the DS group (1.0% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.04) at 2 years. However, DS was not found to be an independent predictor of ST in multivariate analysis. There were no significant differences in in-hospital rates of death and TLR. The DS compared to CS resulted in greater rates of postprocedural TIMI grade 3 flow, and lower risk of edge dissection. The procedure time, radiation exposure and contrast administration were found to be significantly lower in the DS group.

CONCLUSIONS:

In selected patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI for small vessel CAD, DS is not only safe and feasible but also reduces ST rates, contrast load, and procedural and radiation exposure time.