Impact of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Pattern on Patients with First Acute Myocardial Infarction

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

The Mediterranean diet (MD) affects the risk of myocardial infarction and long-term prognosis after a coronary event. Limited data are available regarding the influence of MD on short-term prognosis. We assessed the impact of the MD adherence on in-hospital and short-term outcome in patients with first ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

As many as 533 European patients with STEMI and no previous history of coronary artery disease were included in this analysis. Previous dietary habits of each patient were collected with a food frequency questionnaire from which we calculated the FAMI Mediterranean Diet Score (FAMI MD Score), according to the MD adherence. A blood sample was drawn to each patient within 6 h of symptoms onset. Levels of high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Clinical outcome at 180 days and myocardial reperfusion were assessed. Patients with higher FAMI MD Score had lower levels of hsCRP; there were no differences between IL-6 level among FAMI MD Score quintiles. There were no associations between adherence to MD and 180-day adverse events. Lower FAMI MD Score was associated with a higher risk of ineffective myocardial reperfusion after thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention. Similar results were observed for daily consumption of ≥4 portions of fruit and vegetable.

CONCLUSIONS:

A positive effect of the Mediterranean diet, and fruit and vegetable intake was observed on hsCRP and the occurrence of effective myocardial reperfusion. These findings confirm the favorable impact of Mediterranean diet adherence not only in primary but also in secondary prevention.