Efficacy and Safety of Intracoronary Prourokinase During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Treating ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Study

Background: Prourokinase is a single-chain plasminogen activator presenting with fewer hemorrhagic complications and reduced reocclusion rate compared with the conventional fibrinolytic agents in patients with coronary artery disease. However, prourokinase intracoronary injection during PCI for treating patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is rarely investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracoronary prourokinase during the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in treating STEMI patients.

Methods: Fifty STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to intracoronary prourokinase group (N = 25) or control group (N = 25). During the primary PCI procedure, patients in the intracoronary prourokinase group received 10 ml prourokinase injection, while patients in control group received 10 ml saline injection as control. The primary endpoints were coronary physiological indexes, the secondary endpoints were angiographic assessments, myocardial infarct size/reperfusion assessment, cardiac function evaluations, major adverse coronary events (MACEs) and hemorrhagic complications. All patients were followed up for 3 months.

Results: Post PCI, the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was decreased in intracoronary prourokinase group than that in control group (34.56 ± 7.48 vs. 49.00 ± 8.98, P < 0.001), while no difference of coronary flow reserve (CFR) (2.01 ± 0.32 vs. 1.88 ± 0.23, P = 0.267) or fractional flow reserve (FFR) (0.89 ± 0.05 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04, P = 0.121) was found between the two groups. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) (P = 0.024), peak values of creatine kinase (CK) (P = 0.028), CK isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) (P = 0.016), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (P = 0.032) and complete ST-segment resolution (STR) (P = 0.005) were better in intracoronary prourokinase group compared with control group. At 3-months post PCI, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and wall motion score index (WMSI) were higher, while left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) was lower in intracoronary prourokinase group compared with control group (all P < 0.05). There was no difference in hemorrhagic complication or total MACE between the two groups.

Conclusion: Intracoronary prourokinase during PCI is more efficient and equally tolerant compared with PCI alone in treating STEMI patients.