Comparative Study of the Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow on Acute Myocardial Infarction Model

OBJECTIVES:

Stem cell therapy is a promising approach in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (AT-MSC) are attractive and feasible for preclinical and clinical trials. In this study, we compared the therapeutic potential of BM-MSC and AT-MSC in repairing the hearts of rats with isoproterenol (ISO)-induced AMI.

METHODS:

Forty-two female rats were assigned into two groups; the optimization and the experimental group. The optimization groups were further subdivided into control group and the AMI induced group (using ISO). The experimental group was subdivided into AMI+cell-free media injected in the tail vein, AMI+BM-MSC, and AMI+AT-MSC groups treated with the intravenous injection of their respective cell types. Twenty-eight days after induction, electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed, and heart tissue samples were collected for histological assessment and cells tracing.

RESULTS:

MSC therapy repaired cardiac functions shown by the restoration of ST segment, QT and QRS intervals in the ECG when compared to the AMI group. Infarct area was significantly decreased, and cardiac tissue regeneration signs were shown on histopathological examination.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both MSC sources proved to be equally efficient in the assessed parameters.