Relationship between body mass index and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with edoxaban or warfarin in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial

This study investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, patients with AF were randomized to warfarin (international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) or edoxaban. The cohort (N = 21 028) included patients across BMI categories (kg/m2): underweight (<18.5) in 0.8%, normal (18.5 to <25) in 21.4%, overweight (25 to <30) in 37.6%, moderately obese (30 to <35) in 24.8%, severely obese (35 to <40) in 10.0%, and very severely obese (≥40) in 5.5%. In an adjusted analysis, higher BMI (continuous, per 5 kg/m2 increase) was significantly and independently associated with lower risks of stroke/systemic embolic event (SEE) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, P = 0.0001], ischemic stroke/SEE (HR 0.87, P < 0.0001), and death (HR 0.91, P < 0.0001), but with increased risks of major (HR 1.06, P = 0.025) and major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (HR 1.05, P = 0.0007). There was a significant interaction between sex and increasing BMI category, with lower risk of ischemic stroke/SEE in males and increased risk of bleeding in women. Trough edoxaban concentration and anti-Factor Xa activity were similar across BMI groups >18.5 kg/m2, while time in therapeutic range for warfarin improved significantly as BMI increased (P < 0.0001). The effects of edoxaban vs. warfarin on stroke/SEE, major bleeding, and net clinical outcome were similar across BMI groups.

An increased BMI was independently associated with a lower risk of stroke/SEE, better survival, but increased risk of bleeding. The efficacy and safety profiles of edoxaban were similar across BMI categories ranging from 18.5 to >40.

Source: European Heart Journal