Acute Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis Impact Coronary Microvascular Function in Patients Presenting with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

BACKGROUND:

Microvascular dysfunction in the setting of ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) is thought to be related to stress-related metabolic changes, including acute glucose intolerance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between admission glucose levels and microvascular function in non-diabetic STEMI patients.

METHODS:

92 consecutive patients with a first anterior-wall STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were enrolled. Blood glucose levels were determined immediately prior to PPCI. After successful PPCI, at 1‑week and 6‑month follow-up, Doppler flow was measured in culprit and reference coronary arteries to calculate coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), baseline (BMR) and hyperaemic (HMR) microvascular resistance.

RESULTS:

The median admission glucose was 8.3 (7.2-9.6) mmol/l respectively 149.4 mg/dl [129.6-172.8] and was significantly associated with peak troponin T (standardised beta coefficient [std beta] = 0.281; p = 0.043). Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing glucose levels were significantly associated with a decrease in reference vessel CFVR (std beta = -0.313; p = 0.002), dictated by an increase in rest average peak velocity (APV) (std beta = 0.216; p = 0.033), due to a decreasing BMR (std beta = -0.225; p = 0.038) in the acute setting after PPCI. These associations disappeared at follow-up. These associations were not found for the infarct-related artery.

CONCLUSION:

Elevated admission glucose levels are associated with impaired microvascular function assessed directly after PPCI in first anterior-wall STEMI. This influence of glucose levels is an acute phenomenon and contributes to microvascular dysfunction through alterations in resting flow and baseline microvascular resistance.