Blood metal levels, leucocyte profiles, and cytokine profiles in patients with a modular dual-mobility hip prosthesis

Aims

The aim of this study was to evaluate blood metal ion levels, leucocyte profiles, and serum cytokines in patients with a total hip arthroplasty (THA) involving modular dual-mobility components.

Patients and Methods

A total of 39 patients were recruited, with clinical follow-up of up to two years. Outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score (HHS, the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Blood concentrations of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and serum cytokines were measured. Subpopulations of leucocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry.

Results

The clinical performance was good. Blood Co levels (ref 1.0 µg/l) were mildly elevated in seven patients at three months, and two patients at two years’ follow-up. The preoperative Cr levels were normal except for one patient with a detectable Cr (1.2 µg/l). Cr levels were detectable in three patients at three months, two patients at one year, and three patients at two years’ follow-up. No patients had symptoms suggestive of failure. Although flow cytometry showed constant circulating leucocyte profiles, there was a significant reduction of serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and interferon gamma (IFNγ) postoperatively compared with the preoperative levels (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

These results suggest that THA using modular dual-mobility components is safe. This allows an opportunity to use a large femoral head and a thick polyethylene bearing surface, which is especially useful in revision procedures or high-risk situations when added stability is required.