Association of Smoking Status With Long-Term Mortality and Health Status After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry

Background: Smoking is a significant risk factor for aortic stenosis but its impact on clinical and health status outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has not been described.

Methods and Results: Patients (n=72 165) undergoing TAVR at 457 US sites in the STS/ACC TVT (Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy) Registry between November 2011 and June 2016 were categorized at the time of TAVR as current/recent smokers versus prior/nonsmokers. A series of multivariable models examined the association between smoking status and outcomes, including 1-year mortality, rehospitalization, mean gradient, and health status (measured by the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Overall Summary Score [KCCQ-OS]) and in-hospital outcomes. A total of 4063 patients (5.6%) were smokers. Smokers presented for TAVR at a younger age (75 [68-81] years versus 83 [77-88] years) but with a greater burden of cardiovascular and lung disease. In adjusted models, smoking was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.89 [P=0.001]) but not with in-hospital stroke/transient ischemic attack or myocardial infarction. Smoking status had no association with postdischarge mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure (HF) but was associated with slightly lower 1-year KCCQ-OS scores (2.4-point lower KCCQ-OS; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.2 [P=0.031]) and higher mean aortic valve gradients (11.1 versus 10.2 mm Hg, P<0.001) in adjusted models.

Conclusions: The current/recent smoking rate in US patients with TAVR is 5.6% and smokers present at a younger age for TAVR. Smoking was associated with lower in-hospital but similar long-term survival after TAVR, slightly worse long-term health status, and marginally higher mean aortic valve gradients. Further research is needed to understand the effect of smoking cessation on outcomes.