This article was originally published here
Biomedicines. 2021 Jan 9;9(1):E59. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9010059.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) has long been at the forefront of the battle with cancer that began last century with the therapeutic application of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) against melanoma. The development of novel ACT approaches led researchers and clinicians to highly efficient technologies based on genetically engineered T lymphocytes, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells as the most prominent example. CARs consist of an extracellular domain that represents the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) responsible for target recognition and the intracellular domain, which was built from up to several signaling motifs that mediated T cell activation. The number of potential targets amenable for CAR-T cell therapy is expanding rapidly, which means that the tremendous success of this approach in oncology could be further translated to treating other diseases. In this review, we outlined modern trends and recent developments in CAR-T cell therapy from an unusual point of view by focusing on diseases beyond cancer, such as autoimmune disorders and viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2.