What is the topic of this review? This symposium review provides an overview of the evidence of impaired mitochondrial functions and/or morphology in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) across various organ systems. What advances does it highlight? Impairments to mitochondria functions and morphology may be a primary mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of various complications in people with T1D.
We recently made the observation that there are significant alterations to the ultrastructure and functions of mitochondria in skeletal muscle of people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). These alterations are proposed to lead to decreased energy production in skeletal muscle during exercise and thus may contribute to the impaired aerobic exercise capacity reported in some people with T1D. This Symposium Review has two aims. The first is to summarise the evidence that similar alterations also occur in the mitochondria present in organ systems outside skeletal muscle in people with T1D. The second aim is to summarise the evidence that these alterations in these extramuscular organ systems may contribute to the development and progression of the known complications of T1D, which eventually lead to the reported premature mortality.