A New Reality for Multiple Myeloma Renal Failure: US Data Report on Kidney Transplant Outcomes

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Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2021 Nov 11:S2152-2650(21)02425-3. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Describe graft and overall survival outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM) patients who underwent kidney transplant (KT) compared to the general KT population.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/National United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTON/UNOS) database was analyzed from 1988 to 2019 with R 4.00 and the 2013-2017 United States Renal Data System (USRDS) was surveyed for incidence and mortality of MM ESRD.

RESULTS: USRDS analysis revealed 961 patients diagnosed with ESRD due to MM on average annually, accounting for 0.8% of the ESRD population. Without KT, 44.4% of MM patients died in the first year of renal replacement initiation. OPTON/UNOS analysis identified 218 MM KT patients, compared to 490,089 patients without MM. There was no difference in graft survival between MM KT and the general population (P-value = .13, HR = 1.19 [0.95, 1.49], 95% CI). Median graft survival in MM KT was 2683 days (7.4 years). KT patients with MM had a higher risk for death (P-value = <.0001, HR = 1.83 [1.41, 2.37], 95% CI), and median overall survival was 3076 days (8.4 years). Survival difference was lost when comparing patients ≥50 years (P-value = .42, HR = 1.14 [0.83, 1.56], 95% CI).

CONCLUSION: Patients with MM renal failure who underwent KT had equivalent graft and age-matched overall survival compared to the general KT population. Therefore select patients with MM renal failure have potential for excellent KT outcomes, should be considered for transplantation when feasible, and should not be excluded from KT based on a history of MM.

PMID:34872880 | DOI:10.1016/j.clml.2021.11.002