Concurrent Cerebral, Splenic, and Renal Infarction in a Patient With COVID-19 Infection

This article was originally published here

Neurologist. 2021 Nov 30. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0000000000000403. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic events are potentially devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Although less common than venous thromboembolism, arterial thrombosis has been reported in COVID-19 cohorts in almost 3% of patients. We describe a patient with COVID-19 infection and concurrent cerebral and noncerebral infarction.

CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old man with history of COVID-19 pneumonia was admitted to a primary stroke center for speech disturbances and left hemiplegia. Urgent laboratory tests showed a great increase of inflammatory and coagulation parameters as D-dimer, ferritin, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Neuroimaging found occlusion of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery with early signs of ischemic stroke. He received intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Abdominal computed tomography discovered a splenic infarction with hemorrhagic transformation and bilateral renal infarction. Urgent angiography showed an associated splenic pseudoaneurysm, which was embolized without complications. He was treated with intermediate-dose anticoagulation (1 mg subcutaneous enoxaparin/kg/24 h), acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and 5 days of intravenous corticosteroids. In the following days, inflammatory markers decreased so anticoagulant treatment was stopped and acetylsalicylic acid 300 mg was prescribed. His condition improved and he was discharged to a rehabilitation facility on hospital day 30.

CONCLUSION: In this case, a patient with multiple thrombotic events in the acute phase of COVID-19 infection, the delimitation of the inflammatory state through analytical markers as D-dimer helped to individualize the antithrombotic treatment (full anticoagulation or anticoagulation at intermediate doses plus antiplatelet treatment as used in our patient) and its duration. However, more data are needed to better understand the mechanisms and treatment of stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection.

PMID:34855656 | DOI:10.1097/NRL.0000000000000403